Contrôles d’identité en France vs. Police I.D. Checks in the US (see comment)

Rappelons qu’aux Etats-Unis, par exemple, on ne peut contrôler votre identité “without just cause ” ‘si vous êtes un piéton -( en voiture, c’est une autre histoire …) et qu’il n’existe pas de Carte Nationale d’Identité, pour l’instant.

*voir la situation aux Etats-Unis, en commentaire

==

En droit français, le contrôle d’identité est une enquête de police visant à établir l’identité de la personne contrôlée. Cette enquête est réglementée par des lois de 1986 et de 1993 inscrites aux articles 78-1 et suivants du Code de procédure pénale. Le droit distingue le contrôle d’identité de police judiciaire, qui s’effectue dans le contexte d’une infraction, et le contrôle d’identité de police administrative, qui peut avoir pour objectif de prévenir des infractions, et non simplement de les réprimer. Les contrôles d’identité généralisés et discrétionnaires sont illégaux; les contrôles généralisés dans certaines zones sont légaux dans certaines circonstances (prévention de troubles à l’ordre public). Les contrôles ne peuvent se faire sur le seul fondement de l’apparence extérieure, ni non plus sur le seul fait de parler une langue étrangère [1]. La Commission nationale de déontologie de la sécurité (CNDS) a été saisie de plusieurs cas de contrôles abusifs, et a rappelé qu’il convenait « d’éviter les contrôles d’identité sans motif et au faciès ».

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contr%C3%B4le_d%27identit%C3%A9_en_France

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One Response to “Contrôles d’identité en France vs. Police I.D. Checks in the US (see comment)”

  1. jeanwadier Says:

    http://www.lectlaw.com/files/con13.htmBrought to you by – The ‘Lectric Law Library The Net’s Finest Legal Resource For Legal Pros & Laypeople Alike.
    http://www.lectlaw.com

    Pinkerton v. Verberg 99 S.Ct. 2627 (1979) says: Personal liberty,
    which is guaranteed to every citizen under our constitution and laws,
    consists of the right to locomotion,-to go where one pleases, and
    when, and to do that which may lead to one’s business or pleasure,
    only restrained as the rights to others may make it necessary for the
    welfare of all other citizens. One may travel along the public
    highways or in public places; and while conducting themselves in a
    decent and orderly manner, distrubing no other, and interfering with
    the rights of no other citizens, there, they will be protected under
    law, not only their persons, but in their safe conduct. The
    constitution and the laws are framed for the public good, and the
    protection of all citizens from the highest to the lowest; and no one
    may be restrained of his liberty, unless he transgressed some law.
    Any law which would place the keeping and safe conduct of another in
    the hands of even a conservator of the peace, unless for some breach
    of the peace committed in his presence, or upon suspicion of felony,
    would be most oppressive and unjust, and distroy all rights which our
    constitution guarantees.

    Wilson v. Superior Court (1983) 34 Cal3d 777,789, quoting Florida v.
    Rover (1983): Law enforcement officers do not violate the Fouth
    Amendment by merely approaching an individual on the street or in
    another public place, by asking him if he was willing to answer some
    questions, by putting questions to him if the person is willing to
    listen, or by offering in evidence in a criminal prosecutions his
    voluntary answers to such questions. The person approached, however,
    need not answer any questions put to him; indeed, he may decline to
    listen to the questions at all and may go on his own way.

    The Supreme Court has recognized the significant intrusion occasioned
    by an identifcation requirement in a statute. See Brown v. Texas 443
    U.S.47, 52, 99 S.Ct. 2637, 61 L.Ed.2d 357 (1979). “We believe that
    the serious intrusion on personal security outweighs the mere
    possibility that identification may provide a link leading to
    arrest.”

    —–
    Brought to you by – The ‘Lectric Law Library
    The Net’s Finest Legal Resource For Legal Pros & Laypeople Alike.
    http://www.lectlaw.com

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